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Linux获取网卡型号、mac地址、修改IP地址的几种方法
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Linux获取网卡型号、mac地址、修改IP地址的几种方法

1.获取所有有(无)网卡型号

方法一、ifconfig

用法:ifconfig | grep <network_interface> | cut -d ':' -f 1
ubuntu

root@ubuntu:~# ifconfig | grep enp| cut -d ':' -f 1
enp2s0
enp3s0

centos

[root@centos ~]# ifconfig | grep ens| cut -d ':' -f 1
ens192

注意:ubuntu下有线网卡基本以enp开头,centos以ens开头,无线网卡下ubuntu以wlp开头

方法二、ip a

用法:ip a | grep <network_interface> | cut -d ':' -f 2 | awk '{print $1}' | grep <network_interface>
ubuntu

root@ubuntu:~# ip a | grep enp | cut -d ':' -f 2 | awk '{print $1}' | grep enp
enp2s0
enp3s0

centos

[root@centos ~]# ip a | grep ens | cut -d ':' -f 2 | awk '{print $1}' | grep ens
ens192

方法三、ls /sys/class/net (推荐)

用法:ls /sys/class/net | grep <network_interface>

root@ubuntu:~# ls /sys/class/net | grep enp
enp2s0
enp3s0

2.获取有(无)线网卡对应mac地址

用法:cat /sys/class/net/<network_interface>/address

root@ubuntu:~# cat /sys/class/net/enp2s0/address
f4:8e:38:ad:34:6d

3.获取有(无)线网卡对应的IP地址

用法:ifconfig <network_interface> | grep inet | grep -v inet6 | sed 's/^[ \t]*//g' | cut -d ' ' -f 2| awk '{print $1}'

root@ubuntu:~# ifconfig enp2s0 | grep inet | grep -v inet6 | sed 's/^[ \t]*//g' | cut -d ' ' -f 2| awk '{print $1}'
192.168.81.208

4.补充:查看某个网卡信息

root@ubutun:~# ifconfig enp2s0
enp2s0: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        inet 192.168.81.208  netmask 255.255.254.0  broadcast 192.168.81.255
        inet6 fe80::c0b1:bc04:43a5:9eab  prefixlen 64  scopeid 0x20<link>
        ether f4:8e:38:ad:34:6d  txqueuelen 1000  (以太网)
        RX packets 39571544  bytes 5640943675 (5.6 GB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 1989163  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 45318631  bytes 36700361403 (36.7 GB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0
root@ubuntu:~# ip a s enp2s0
2: enp2s0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc fq_codel state UP group default qlen 1000
    link/ether f4:8e:38:ad:34:6d brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
    inet 192.168.81.208/23 brd 192.168.81.255 scope global noprefixroute enp2s0
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
    inet 192.168.81.111/32 scope global enp2s0
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
    inet6 fe80::c0b1:bc04:43a5:9eab/64 scope link noprefixroute
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever

5.修改IP地址

Ubuntu

有线

#传参顺序:IP地址 子网掩码 网关 dns 有线网卡设备号
uuid=$(uuidgen)
address=${1:-"192.168.81.209"}
netmask=${2:-"23"}
gateway=${3:-"192.168.80.1"}
dns=${4:-"192.168.3.230"}
interface=${5:-"enp1s0"}
#时间戳
timestamp=`date +%s`
mac_address=`cat /sys/class/net/${interface}/address`
#将mac地址转化为大写
typeset -u mac
mac=${mac_address}
en="Wired connection 1"
cn="有线连接 1"
network=""
#获取语言
language=`cat /etc/default/locale | grep "LANG=" | awk '{print $1}'`
zh_cn="zh_CN"
en_us="en_US"
if [[ ${language} =~ ${zh_cn} ]];then
    echo "系统语言为中文"
    network=${cn}
else
    echo "系统语言为英文"
    network=${en}
fi

cat <<EOF >/etc/NetworkManager/system-connections/"${network}"
[connection]
id=${network}
uuid=${uuid}
type=ethernet
autoconnect-priority=-999
permissions=
timestamp=${timestamp}

[ethernet]
mac-address=${mac}
mac-address-blacklist=

[ipv4]
address1=${address}/${netmask},${gateway}
dns=${dns}
dns-search=
method=manual

[ipv6]
addr-gen-mode=stable-privacy
dns-search=
method=auto
EOF
#文件赋权
chmod 600 /etc/NetworkManager/system-connections/"${network}"

#IP临时生效,重启永久生效
#ifconfig ${interface} ${address}

echo -e "\033[1;32m  关闭网卡${interface} \033[0m"
ifconfig ${interface} down
sleep 10
echo -e "\033[1;32m  关闭网络管理服务 \033[0m"
systemctl stop network-manager
echo -e "\033[1;32m  开启网络管理服务 \033[0m"
systemctl start network-manager
echo -e "\033[1;32m  开启网卡${interface} \033[0m"
ifconfig ${interface} up
echo -e "\033[1;32m  查看修改后有线IP配置 \033[0m"
ip a

若有多个dns,请以分号(;)隔开

无线

#传参顺序:wifi名称  wifi密码  网卡设备号  ip地址 子网掩码 网关 dns  
uuid=$(uuidgen)
wifi_name=${1:-"MECDAPTAIN"}
wifi_psk=${2:-"MECT8888"}
interface=${3:-"wlp2s0"}
address=${4:-"192.168.81.209"}
netmask=${5:-"23"}
gateway=${6:-"192.168.80.1"}
dns=${7:-"192.168.3.230"}

#搜索到的无线网名称
#wifi_list=`iwlist ${interface} scan | grep ESSID |cut -d '"' -f 2`
mac_address=`cat /sys/class/net/${interface}/address`
#将mac地址转化为大写
typeset -u mac
mac=${mac_address}

cat <<EOF >/etc/NetworkManager/system-connections/${wifi_name}
[connection]
id=${wifi_name}
uuid=${uuid}
type=wifi
permissions=

[wifi]
mac-address=${mac}
mac-address-blacklist=
mode=infrastructure
ssid=${wifi_name}

[wifi-security]
key-mgmt=wpa-psk
psk=${wifi_psk}

[ipv4]
address1=${address}/${netmask},${gateway}
dns=${dns}
dns-search=
method=manual

[ipv6]
addr-gen-mode=stable-privacy
dns-search=
method=auto
EOF
echo -e "\033[1;31m  赋予配置文件600权限 \033[0m"
chmod 600 /etc/NetworkManager/system-connections/${wifi_name}

#IP临时生效,重启永久生效
#ifconfig ${interface} ${address}

echo -e "\033[1;32m  关闭网卡${interface} \033[0m"
ifconfig ${interface} down
sleep 10
echo -e "\033[1;32m  关闭网络管理服务 \033[0m"
systemctl stop network-manager
echo -e "\033[1;32m  开启网络管理服务 \033[0m"
systemctl start network-manager
echo -e "\033[1;32m  开启网卡${interface} \033[0m"
ifconfig ${interface} up
echo -e "\033[1;32m  查看修改后有线IP配置 \033[0m"
ip a

若有多个dns,请以分号(;)隔开

Ubuntu的网络配置文件都在/etc/NetworkManager/system-connections/下,直接修改这里的文件是最直接有效的。

centos

有线

#!/usr/bin/env bash 
#传参顺序:IP地址 子网掩码 网关 dns1 dns2 有线网卡设备号
address=${1:-"192.168.81.209"}
netmask=${2:-"23"}
gateway=${3:-"192.168.80.1"}
dns1=${4:-"192.168.3.230"}
dns2=${5:-"192.168.3.231"}
interface=${6:-"ens33"}

uuid=$(uuidgen)
cat <<EOF >/etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-${interface}
TYPE="Ethernet"
PROXY_METHOD="none"
BROWSER_ONLY="no"
BOOTPROTO="none"
DEFROUTE="yes"
IPV4_FAILURE_FATAL="no"
IPV6INIT="yes"
IPV6_AUTOCONF="yes"
IPV6_DEFROUTE="yes"
IPV6_FAILURE_FATAL="no"
IPV6_ADDR_GEN_MODE="stable-privacy"
NAME="ens192"
UUID="${uuid}"
DEVICE="${interface}"
ONBOOT="yes"
IPADDR="${address}"
PREFIX="${netmask}"
GATEWAY="${gateway}"
IPV6_PRIVACY="no"
DNS1="${dns1}"
DNS2="${dns2}"
EOF

echo -e "\033[1;32m  重启网络服务 \033[0m"
systemctl restart network
echo -e "\033[1;32m  查看网络服务状态 \033[0m"
systemctl status network
echo -e '\033[1;32m 查看修改后的IP地址 \033[0m'
ip a
exit

centos的网络配置文件都在/etc/sysconfig/network-scripts

以上脚本都可以改写为控制台输入的方式变成通用脚本。

6.搜索无线网名称

用法:iwlist <network_interface> scan(scanning) | grep ESSID |cut -d '"' -f 2
或:iw dev <network_interface> scan | grep SSID |cut -d ':' -f 2 | awk '{print $1}'

root@ubuntu:~# iwlist wlp2s0 scan | grep ESSID |cut -d '"' -f 2
HP-Print-04-LaserJet Pro MFP
MikroTik-768962
ChinaNet-DDNw
i-Nanjing-Free
SGXY-Office
SGXY-Office
iTV-DDNw
ChinaNet-xHwF
ChinaNet-CaDp
ChinaNet-XZws
ChinaNet-VuPW
iTV-VuPW
i-Nanjing-Free
i-Nanjing-Free
DIRECT-PODESKTOP-CS6BIUPmsHE
i-Nanjing-Free
i-Nanjing-Free
DIRECT-67-HP M281 LaserJet
GNWS
i-Nanjing-Free
i-Nanjing-Free
TP-LINK_nanorainbow
i-Nanjing-Free
HP-Print-9B-Color LaserJet Pro
i-Nanjing-Free
i-Nanjing-Free
i-Nanjing-Free
TP-LINK_8303
i-Nanjing-Free

7.无线设备的开启和关闭(临时,重启失效)

1.开启/关闭飞行模式

rfkill block/unblock all 

2.开启/关闭某个无线设备

rfkill block/unblock <interface>

interface包括:0 ,1, all,bluetooth,gps,uwb,wifi,wimax,wwan

3.显示当前机器的无线设备状态

rfkill list

如:

root@ubuntu:~# rfkill list
0: hci0: Bluetooth
	Soft blocked: no
	Hard blocked: no
1: phy0: Wireless LAN
	Soft blocked: no
	Hard blocked: no

8.查看无线网卡连接的网络信息

iwconfig <network_interface>
ip19@ubuntu:~$ iwconfig wlp2s0
wlp2s0    IEEE 802.11  ESSID:"MEDCAPTAIN_2.4G"
          Mode:Managed  Frequency:2.412 GHz  Access Point: 0C:4B:54:FE:27:F2
          Bit Rate=150 Mb/s   Tx-Power=20 dBm
          Retry short limit:7   RTS thr=2347 B   Fragment thr:off
          Power Management:on
          Link Quality=70/70  Signal level=-26 dBm
          Rx invalid nwid:0  Rx invalid crypt:0  Rx invalid frag:0
          Tx excessive retries:0  Invalid misc:5   Missed beacon:0

9.禁用/启用有线网卡(临时,重启失效)

ifconfig <network_interface> down/up

说明:无线设备的开启和关闭,使用rfkill命令,用ifconfig命令不管用


“The first 90% of the code accounts for the first 90% of the development time. The remaining 10% of the code accounts for the other 90% of the development time.” – Tom Cargill

标  题Linux获取网卡型号、mac地址、修改IP地址的几种方法
作  者Leif160519
出  处https://github.icu/articles/2019/09/29/1569726912754.html
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